Childhood Diseases

Childhood leukemia is the widest type of cancer among children; it is a cancer of white blood cells that leads to the formation of abnormal white blood cells inside bone marrow. The cells travel to the blood stream and cover healthy blood cells increasing chances for infection among other problems (American cancer society, 2015).

Risk factors

Leukemia affects children with inherited characteristics, poor immune system, having brothers and sisters with leukemia and exposure to heavy radiation, chemicals, and chemotherapy.

Types of leukemia

Leukemia is grouped into acute lymphoblastic, acute myelogenous, hybrid and chronic myelogenous leukemia. In addition, there is rare leukemia such as chronic myelogenous and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Symptoms

Leukemia sick children have infections and fever, pale skin and fatigue, short breath and coughing. The child complains of joint pain, swells in the abdomen, arms, face, and sides of the neck. They swell above collarbone and lose appetite (Faderl, 2011). Headaches lose of balance and abnormal vision as well as rashes, problems with the gum and vomiting.

Tests

Doctors conduct tests such as blood tests, bone marrow aspiration, biopsy, and lumbar puncture

Treatment

Childhood leukemia treatment includes chemotherapy and anticancer drugs. Radiation therapy and stem cell transplant are also used. The process is a transplant of blood-forming stem cells after a radiation and high dose chemotherapy.

Bacteremia pathophhysiology

The bacteria colonize the respiratory passage and enter into the child’s blood. The bacterium in the blood may seize quickly or multiply further to cause sepsis.

Types of bacteremia

Types of bacteremia include staph bacteremia, pneumococcal, streptococcus, MRSA, MSSA, Enterococcus, polymicrobial, salmonella, serratia, and Occult bacteremia.

Symptoms include high fever, hypoxemia, rapid breathing, nausea, quick heartbeat, hypothermia, weakness, and paleness (Nielsen, 2015).

Causes

Infected wounds, unsterilized needles, insertion of bladder catheter, dental procedures, major injuries on the surface of the skin, body infections, cause bacteremia (Mehrotra &Mishra, 2014).

Treatment is done using antibiotics.

Respiratory failure

Respiratory failure is syndrome that involves failure of a respiratory system in its function of gas exchange. Failures occur in oxygenation and ventilation. Acute respiratory failure results when air sacs fill with fluid in the lungs. The lungs fail to release oxygen in the blood making the organs not function due to inadequate blood. The attack also occurs when lungs fail to extract carbon dioxide from the blood. As a result, there is no proper exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide from the lungs (Barbas et al., 2012).

Acute respiratory failure is grouped into hypoxemic and hypersonic respiratory failure. Hypoxemic failure is a condition where there is no adequate oxygen in the blood but carbon dioxide levels are almost normal. Hypercapnic type explains that there is excess carbon dioxide and inadequate oxygen in the blood.

Causes

Causes of acute respiratory failure include obstruction in the throat, injury in the respiratory system, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), abuse of drugs and alcohol, inhalation of chemicals and stroke.

Symptoms

Symptoms include restlessness, anxiety, difficulties in breathing, confusion, blue color on the skin, lips and fingertips, excess sweating, states of unconsciousness and shallow breathing (Katyal & Gajic, 2011).

Treatment

Pain relievers, tracheotomy, and supply of oxygen using a ventilator treat acute respiratory.

Acute renal failure

Acute renal failure occurs from sudden failure of kidneys to filter waste products from the blood. It causes accumulation of waste and chemicals in the blood system. The condition develops after few hours or days among people who are every ill and hospitalized (Brochard & Abroug, 2007).

Symptoms

Acute kidney failure condition has symptoms such as decreased output of urine, drowsiness, and short breath, retention of fluid, fatigue, chest pains, confusion, and seizures.

Causes

Conditions that slow blood flow in the kidneys, direct injury to kidneys, and blockage of ureters cause acute kidney failure. Heart attacks and diseases, infections, liver failure, cause more over it. High blood pressure, severe dehydration, and allergies (Ashley, 2010).

Treatment

Patients undergo kidney dialysis and take drugs

Septic shock due to streptococcal infection

Septic shock symptoms include a body temperature that is above 38.3 and below 36 degrees centigrade. A heart rate of more than 90 beats in a minute and a respiratory rate that is more than 20 breaths in a minute (Mayo clinic, 2016).

Signs include decreased output of urine, reduced platelet count, difficulties in breathing, abnormal pain, and change of mental status. Septic shock has very low blood pressure, which does not correspond with the fluid replacement.

Risk factors include very young and very old age, compromised immune system, sickness,            invasive devices, injuries, and burns (Francois et al., 2016).

Complications

Severe sepsis condition leads to flow of blood to vital organs like the heart, brain, and kidneys. Blood clots form in vital organs, fingers, and toes

 

References

Mayo clinic. (2016). Sepsis. Mayo Foundation for medical education and research. Retrieved       from             http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/sepsis/symptoms-causes/dxc-          20169787

American cancer society. (2015). Childhood leukemia, 1-55.

Faderl, S. (2011). Treatment of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia and recent advances.         Novel aspects in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 101-117.

Nielsen, S. (2015).The incidence and prognosis of patients with bacteremia. Danish medical          journal, 1-25.

Mehrotra, A., &Mishra, S. (2014). Determination of the causative agents of bacteremia in             children under 5 years and their susceptibility pattern to the antibiotics. Global journal of     medical research: c microbiology and pathology, 1(14), 1-7.

Barbas, C., Lopes, G., Vieira, D., Couto, L., Dourado, L., & Caser, E. (2012). Respiratory            evaluation of             patients requiring ventilator support due to acute respiratory failure. Open journal of nursing, 2,336-340.

Katyal, P., & Gajic, O. (2011). Pathophysiology of respiratory failure and use of mechanical         ventilation. Mayo clinic, 1-37.

Brochard, L., & Abroug, F. (2007).An official ATS/ERS/ESICM/SCCM/SRLF Statement:          prevention and management of acute renal failure in the ICU patient. American thoracic    society documents, 1- 28.

Ashley, C. (2010).Acute renal failure. Chapter 3, 1-14.

Francois, B., Gissot, V., Ploy, M., & Vignon, P. (2016).recurrent septic shock due to         streptococcus Suis. American society for microbiology. Journal of clinical          microbiology, 8(36), 2395.

Nguyen, B., Rivers, E., Abrahamian, F., Moran, G. (2006). Severe sepsis and septic shock:            review of the             literature and emergency department management guidelines. Infectious     disease/review article, 1-28.