Childhood Diseases

Childhood leukemia is the widest type of cancer among children; it is a cancer of white blood cells that leads to the formation of abnormal white blood cells inside bone marrow. The cells travel to the blood stream and cover healthy blood cells increasing chances for infection among other problems (American cancer society, 2015).

Risk factors

Leukemia affects children with inherited characteristics, poor immune system, having brothers and sisters with leukemia and exposure to heavy radiation, chemicals, and chemotherapy.

Types of leukemia

Leukemia is grouped into acute lymphoblastic, acute myelogenous, hybrid and chronic myelogenous leukemia. In addition, there is rare leukemia such as chronic myelogenous and chronic lymphocytic leukemia.


Leukemia sick children have infections and fever, pale skin and fatigue, short breath and coughing. The child complains of joint pain, swells in the abdomen, arms, face, and sides of the neck. They swell above collarbone and lose appetite (Faderl, 2011). Headaches lose of balance and abnormal vision as well as rashes, problems with the gum and vomiting.


Doctors conduct tests such as blood tests, bone marrow aspiration, biopsy, and lumbar puncture


Childhood leukemia treatment includes chemotherapy and anticancer drugs. Radiation therapy and stem cell transplant are also used. The process is a transplant of blood-forming stem cells after a radiation and high dose chemotherapy.

Bacteremia pathophhysiology

The bacteria colonize the respiratory passage and enter into the child’s blood. The bacterium in the blood may seize quickly or multiply further to cause sepsis.

Types of bacteremia

Types of bacteremia include staph bacteremia, pneumococcal, streptococcus, MRSA, MSSA, Enterococcus, polymicrobial, salmonella, serratia, and Occult bacteremia.

Symptoms include high fever, hypoxemia, rapid breathing, nausea, quick heartbeat, hypothermia, weakness, and paleness (Nielsen, 2015).


Infected wounds, unsterilized needles, insertion of bladder catheter, dental procedures, major injuries on the surface of the skin, body infections, cause bacteremia (Mehrotra &Mishra, 2014).

Treatment is done using antibiotics.

Respiratory failure

Respiratory failure is syndrome that involves failure of a respiratory system in its function of gas exchange. Failures occur in oxygenation and ventilation. Acute respiratory failure results when air sacs fill with fluid in the lungs. The lungs fail to release oxygen in the blood making the organs not function due to inadequate blood. The attack also occurs when lungs fail to extract carbon dioxide from the blood. As a result, there is no proper exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide from the lungs (Barbas et al., 2012).

Acute respiratory failure is grouped into hypoxemic and hypersonic respiratory failure. Hypoxemic failure is a condition where there is no adequate oxygen in the blood but carbon dioxide levels are almost normal. Hypercapnic type explains that there is excess carbon dioxide and inadequate oxygen in the blood.


Causes of acute respiratory failure include obstruction in the throat, injury in the respiratory system, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), abuse of drugs and alcohol, inhalation of chemicals and stroke.


Symptoms include restlessness, anxiety, difficulties in breathing, confusion, blue color on the skin, lips and fingertips, excess sweating, states of unconsciousness and shallow breathing (Katyal & Gajic, 2011).


Pain relievers, tracheotomy, and supply of oxygen using a ventilator treat acute respiratory.

Acute renal failure

Acute renal failure occurs from sudden failure of kidneys to filter waste products from the blood. It causes accumulation of waste and chemicals in the blood system. The condition develops after few hours or days among people who are every ill and hospitalized (Brochard & Abroug, 2007).


Acute kidney failure condition has symptoms such as decreased output of urine, drowsiness, and short breath, retention of fluid, fatigue, chest pains, confusion, and seizures.


Conditions that slow blood flow in the kidneys, direct injury to kidneys, and blockage of ureters cause acute kidney failure. Heart attacks and diseases, infections, liver failure, cause more over it. High blood pressure, severe dehydration, and allergies (Ashley, 2010).


Patients undergo kidney dialysis and take drugs

Septic shock due to streptococcal infection

Septic shock symptoms include a body temperature that is above 38.3 and below 36 degrees centigrade. A heart rate of more than 90 beats in a minute and a respiratory rate that is more than 20 breaths in a minute (Mayo clinic, 2016).

Signs include decreased output of urine, reduced platelet count, difficulties in breathing, abnormal pain, and change of mental status. Septic shock has very low blood pressure, which does not correspond with the fluid replacement.

Risk factors include very young and very old age, compromised immune system, sickness,            invasive devices, injuries, and burns (Francois et al., 2016).


Severe sepsis condition leads to flow of blood to vital organs like the heart, brain, and kidneys. Blood clots form in vital organs, fingers, and toes



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