Crisis Advertising 2011

 Crisis Advertising 2011

This document evaluates the crisis the advertising industry found itself in 2011 and how it responds to changes that continue to take place in the marketing industry. It examines at the origins of the current advertising and marketing industries, the introduction of the total-service agents, the improvements in the creative revolution, and the sequential severance of the organizations advertising function from the other services delivered by the agencies. It also evaluates how particular standards and activities were introduced, the existing logic behind such codes, as well as their strengths in the industry. In addition, the document evaluates a number of the future success as well as obstacles standing in the way for the advertising industry, the crisis of measurement, attempts to enhance the standards and roles played by the advertising channels, and the introduction of new innovative formats. This document also makes investigations of the developments taking place currently in the print and electronic media industries as well as the internet as the means and channels of advertising. This involves further looking at the impact of those developments on the culture, organization and economics of the advertising industry. The feedback from of the media and the advertising sectors concerning changes in technological developments and to subsequent developments in customer consumption do not have to make correspondence to each other, nor unidirectional feedbacks. While the destiny of success of most industries is inextricably dependent on other industries, each industry is in the process of introducing business practices they hope will enhance strength or uphold their status and power in the. The diversification and digitization and of the industrial agents has brought about organizational crisis as the agents struggle to properly place themselves for better service and a higher interest in advertising media. In order to raise the amount of revenues, all the links are using a combination of several strategies that are within their disposal.

Executive summary

A worldwide crisis in the advertising of 2011 is making transformations in the business model of advert industries, the content created and distributed, and the consumers of that content are also transformed in several ways. The global advertising media has been transformed by the new technologies. This has taken place around the media environment where the customers have got a lot of control as to when, where, and how they are involved in the interaction with the media. As customers or consumers move print and TV adverts to the internet adverts, the revenue of advertising slinter across a variety of media industry segments that are more and more diversified in distribution platforms.  The process of advertising is the predominantly a financial initiative for the larger industry of the media (Billy 2011).

An evaluation of the industry agents makes considerations to cultural alterations happening as advertising channels appear to be more and more measurable, and therefore more accountable. Therefore, the reorganization of the industry of advertising has considerable effects on the land scape of the media. These effects vary in context, distinct environments of regulatory as well as cultural differences. So it is important to properly understand the requirements of such a key global trend in terms of analysis as well as comparative analysis (Albert 2011).

A report of a research project offered the analysis of the advertising of 2011 in a systematic way and findings were based on traditional process of communication. The process of encoding a message as well as transmitted through channels of advertising to a receiver who carries out decoding; the probability of making provisions of feedback is almost none. In this particular model, the one sending is a one entity whereas the one receiving makes typical embodiment of several people. However, new communication and information technologies and in particular the internet have transformed the model by adopting the whole process. In this digital age, a single individual who is connected to the web network is able to produce, distribute and consume information bits as well as bytes, irrespective of his or her location, provided that the network is accessible. The distributed architecture and structure, information accessibility has been progressively transferred into the possession of its users. Receivers have gone through transformations and made adoptions of more demanding roles; those using the internet not only watch, red and listen but they also make expressions of themselves and develop content of their own. The clients, who used to practice at the input end of the chain of communication, have been put in the middle of the entire activities involved (Billy 2011).

This transformation has majorly been realized courtesy of the social software, technical devices, appropriate tools as well as services that allow the user to copy, edit and distribute the content that circulates through the web network. Over the last decade, tools as well as services like social networks, wikis, podcasts and peer to peer networks have characterized wikis and web blogs exclusively.  The concept of advertising demands that the satisfaction of the customer rather than the maximization of profit be the objective of an organization (Albert 2011).

Introduction

In addressing the issue of advertising crisis of 2011, ides are presented for models of type advertising that are naturally dynamic. At almost all instances, a substantial possibility is taken into consideration for the crisis of advertising that brings about destruction to the basis of the brand in terms of marketing. This could improve or cause destructions to the advertising efficiency during the time of the crisis. The experiences of the advertising crisis of 2011 have brought about stochastic control problems. The most crucial consideration is to envision a possible crisis of advertising so as to effect changes in time preference and rate to marketing and advertising managers. That is, marketers who are ready to discount the present, even before the introduction of the advertising crisis. In order to elaborate on this insight, there are the considerations of appropriate response advertising strategies and evaluations of the outcomes of the advertising crisis as well as the rate of damage (Billy 2011).

The appropriate pre-crisis advertising reduces, but the post-crisis advertising raises as the probability of the crisis increases. Additionally, there are developments concerning estimation methods that are new. The methods continuously make estimations of dynamics of sales as well as feedback strategies with the use of discreet data information. There are detections of effects that are compensatory in the shift of parametric. The efficiency raises, but the effects of carryover reduce (or vice versa). The crisis occurrence is also characterized with the anticipation crises in 2.2 years and within 6.5 years at the 97% confidence level. Finally, there is a correspondence that is remarkable between the optimal decisions of advertising and the observations made. Firms should place their focus on the consumer and make attempts in understanding the requirements of the customer and attend to the as expeditiously as possible. This should be done in a manner that is of benefit to both the organization and the consumer.  This implies that any organization that is involved in research activities should make attempts in obtaining information regarding the consumer requirements and collect the marketing information to assist in satisfying these requirements efficiently. Advertising research is an important part of marketing process; it helps in the improvement decisions in management by making provision of accurate, relevant and timely.  Every decision poses unique needs for information, and relevant strategies can be developed based on the information gathered through marketing research in action. In several advertising research processes, the research of marketing is considered not substantial but just as collection and carrying out the analysis of data for use by someone else. Firms have the capability of achieving and sustaining advantages that are competitive by making use of marketing information. Hence, advertising research is seen as an input of information to decisions, not just the analysis of steps that have been taken. Advertising research alone, however, is not a guarantee to success; the use of market research in an intelligent manner is very important in the success of a business (Albert 2011).

A competitive advantage is the outcome of how the use of information is made but not just to acquire the information. Decisions of marketing involve issues ranging from basic shifts in the placement of a business or the choice of getting into a new market to reduce the amount of tactical obstacles of how to stock a market in a better way. The context for such analysis is the process of market planning, which makes subsequent procession through four steps; analysis of the situation, developing strategies, development of marketing program, and implementation process. This is a continuous process and therefore the analysis of the strategic decisions of the past act as input to the assessment of the situation. In the course of each step, marketing research makes a major contribution to the satisfaction of the customer satisfaction rather maximizing the profit. All decisions poses unique requirements for information and useful strategies can be created on the basis of the information collected via the action of marketing research in action. Although researches and studies are carried out to obtain information, managers do not immediately use the gathered information to solve issues at hand.  The factors that affect the actions of a decision maker with regard to the use of information collected from the research and studies carried out are; the quality of research, prior conformity to expectations, presentation clarity, acceptability around the organization and the challenges brought about by challenges of the current state. Managers and researchers involved in the field if advertising have got agreements that the quality of researches in term of technical requirements is the basis for determination of the use of the research (Billy 2011).

Literature review

The advertising research industry globally is increasingly transforming into an international industry, with more than a third of its income resulting from foreign business activities.  The rise in the significance of international business has led to an increase in awareness of the issues related to international research. International advertising research can be defined as advertising research carried out either sequentially or simultaneously or to speed up advertising decisions in more than one country (Steel 2008). As such, the primary functions of advertising research and the process of research do not have differences with domestic and research; however, the global adverting research process is a lot more complex and the global advertising researcher faces issues that are not similar to those of researchers at domestic level. The role of advertising research is to get a segment that is sizable with homogenous tastes. The developing presence of a global market has been affected by both domestic and foreign markets.  Two of the very important changes are that customers can now develop their own media of advertising schedule, and they have got the capability of making easy revision, produce copy and make distribution of the content. Additionally, the web network and devices like recording electronic give the viewers an opportunity to shift programmes and select the commercials they want to view.   As a result of that, the coordination between, programmers, advertisers and distributors have been able to go through key changes. Satellite and cable transmission, gamming platforms, the Internet and mobile devices are just among a wide variety of choice of user options of advertising media. Moreover, the impact of technology on the consumer is widely spread, beginning from the manner in which the consumers receive media adverts to the manner in which they carry out communications and keep various individuals. As economies began to recover from the destruction of real marketing-fueled instability in major nations of the world, 2011 brought a time of relative advertising.

While a lot of alterations to a state of balance will take a lot of years for several economies in the world. In 2011, nations presenting growth were more than compensation for the considerable small number of laggards. In order to get individuals from various departments that are involved in the early part of the process helps in putting up a successful tone that is necessary for the implementation that is so required.  Getting to know as well as understanding the importance of working together in the primary stages helps in paying dividends at later stages during the processes of training configuration, design as well as training. During the analysis of the needs factors which need to be put into consideration include the following; the number of documents that the system requires to put into storage. Here the number is considered of those documents that already exist as well as the number of additional documents that is done annually. The information here assist in determining the storage space that is so required, the cost of the system as well as the configuration of the hardware.  Another factor is involves the number of users that are involved in the use of the use of the system concurrently. This helps in determining the initial costs of software, the size of the server as well as the licensees that are required. The other thing is the Kind of departments that will be making use of the system and whether it is required in making provision of the public accuses. This allows for the realization of features that are specific as well as the levels of security that are so required. The other factor is the kind of problems involved in the business that needs to be solved so as to ensure an improvement in productivity and as well as a reduction in the costs. This helps in the determination of the kind of functions of a system of document management that are needed as well as the ones that are optional. It also assists in making determination of the necessity of customizations or even plug-ins. The other factor is the existence or presence of issues of regulatory compliance that help in governing an organization. In this case, it is a requirement that the system of document management should contain functions that help in supporting of the compliance. Another Factor is the knowledge of whether there is need for integrating the program of document management together with some other applications of soft wares such as human resources. This is important owing to the fact that issues to do with integration in most cases lengthens the time that is necessary for implementing records of management system as well as the document. These issues need to be solved before carrying out investment into a particular system. The other one is to establish whether the solution of a turnkey or the one that is customized is needed. This helps in determining the level of training, the extent of consultation, level of configuration, amount of installation as well as the support that is required. The other factor is getting to know and understanding the type of network that is so involved into usage at the current time. This also involves knowing whether its existence will continue to take place or whether an upgrading process will be required. This is done in order to make determination of the network obstacles, the upgrades of the work station as well as the configuration of the system.

Mitigating effects of advertising crisis of 2011

There are a number of business cards that are published by the company to inform its customers about the available insecticides that they can purchase from the company. Usually, the business cards are designed containing the company contacts so that customers can know where they need to go so that they can purchase the insecticides. The cards also contain pictures of some of the insects against which the insecticides are produced. There are a number of cards published containing images of insects such as roaches, termites, spiders, ants, bees, butterflies and others insects which are not considered by people to be within the home surrounding. They also publish images of insects that are not required in the households, buildings and other insects that are known to have destructive consequences on human beings (Billy 2011). By publishing these business cards, the public is made aware of the insecticides that they may obtain from the company to assist them in fighting such dangerous insects. It also contains information regarding the person that a potential customer needs to call in case they are under threat of being attacked by insects. Some of the businesses cards are directly processed by the company software designers such as Photoshop designers. Templates such as business cards assist in improving the personality of the business. The company print a range of business services that ere availed to customers and is easily adaptable to fit a customer’s needs. During the design of such cards, a simplified impression is usually preferred by a majority of the customers such as insertion of a few images of insects or reduction of the number of the number of images on the cards. The business cards may not contain images of insects and any other object related to insect control, but they create the most professional cards for customers which shows their commitment towards advertising service. As a result, customers usually become loyal to the products of the company. The business card is also used as a method of advertising. By providing information about the company, it acts as an advertisement for the products that the company deals with. (Albert 2011) The company has invested a considerable amount of time and resources in ensuring the design of business cards is continuing and the arts Community ensures that the design is constantly improved. The advantage of the use of business card is that potential customers are reached at low cost and there is a high possibility of the customer becoming loyal to the products being produced by the company. The uniqueness of these business cards is that they are able to perform double duties by being printed on both sides. The front side of the card usually contain information regarding the business such as contacts and location or company logo while the back of the card usually contains blank spaces to be filled by the customer so that they are able to write when they intend to make an appointment with the company. The back of the card also contain information regarding time, date of the appointment with the marketing team. It has also been observed to be a very important tool for dealing with new customers.

Advertising companies have also strategized its management of employees by making them act as agents of advertisement. Despite having a large number of employees, it is easy to enable each employee have his own business card. It has resulted in more loyalty from employees thus ensuring that they provide good services to customers and also act as agents of advertising the products produced by the company. The designers are effective in business card design and always ensure that the company logo is put on the cards and options that allow automation of the use of cards so that customers get what they need. The other approach towards a better advertising service is treating first time customers well. It is recommended because the first impression can only be made once. Allowing enough time for new customers is likely to result into a business premise and the possibility of continued utilization of services provided by a company. Observing the detailed interaction between customers and their attendants, it is possible to streamline resources so that customers can be able to go beyond the learning process and develop a strong relationship effectively.

According to customer care department at Advertising agents, complete advertising service improvement can be achieved by first ensuring there is enough staff to work in advertising service department. This is because if advertising service department is not well represented, there is a delay in handling advertising services for a long duration of time. This results into customers becoming bored of waiting and not willing to return to the company. They may opt to competitor companies for their needs. This is mainly common during peak hours when there are more call in shops and companies. It has been normal to find manager allowing representatives to perform overtime duties in order to meet the demands of customers during high traffic times.

It also involves inspiring advertising service departments to ensure they take ownership of an account. This is the process of making the customer have some amount of confidence in the ability of the representative to solve his problem. This displaces the speculation that a customer may have to make calls for a number of times before his calls can be received by the supervisor. It has also been discovered that advertising service process can be improved by adding people who are good at socializing to the team of advertising service representatives. It is a matter that is appearing simple but it needs to be given a high amount of consideration. This is because; advertising service representatives who are social display high level of empathy to the needs of customers. They are also skilled in solving problems that customers may be experiencing. Furthermore, it is considered important to allow employees make some decisions regarding customer care. The guidelines need to provide the foundation for employee decision making and it is recommended that they are congratulated in the areas that they are able to make good decisions. This results into improved customer-focussed decision making and ensuring that employees have the power to participate in decisions which dictate the operations of a company.

In addition, there is the need to allow customers to provide their recommendation about the manner in which they would prefer to be handled by the advertising service department. This is because; usually they would prefer to be dealt with in a particular way. This also acts as a guide for improving the level of advertising service. Other activity that may improve advertising service is catching the customer unaware by surprising them with bonuses of products or appreciation notes after they have done their purchases. This activity is likely to result into a positive and inspiring experience that ensures future purchases are increased. The assessment of the real state of the worldwide advertising economy needs an evaluation in terms of dynamic currency, as this indicates the growth that should actually be experienced by participating nations in the international advertising economy. Since they make reflections upon the alterations in rates of exchange, growth of dynamic rates arguably show the rate of development that advertisers and analysts alike should consider when making evaluations of the long-term success of the industry. This frame of evaluation takes on greater considerations in the wake of volatility in international currency markets. In spite of change in macro-economy, the advertising industry itself is structurally strong in virtually every nation. This is partly as a result of limits on customer ‘capacity for change, and partly due to the highly entrenched policies and regulations of the government. Producers, content creators, distributors, packagers and manufacturers of devices are all important to fostering the evolution of the sector – for customers and advertisers alike. Appropriate alteration usually doesn’t take place unless incumbent advertising channel owners foresee that they will gain and take corresponding initiatives. That is not to mean that there won’t be incremental alteration, and thus there must be considerations of other key factors that may affect advertising supported media.

Search could easily make estimations of publishers since search engines have the capability of establishing a direct relationship with content marketers and customers. Search content that is paid requires very little advertisement bandwidth that there is no point of negotiating with the internet service provider to see to it that the information gets to the user. Such developments cannot quickly or easily undergo replication in other media provided the inherently more complex and often regulated components considered therein. Second, technology can enhance the fragmentation of consumers across content as it appears to be a lot more effective In terms of cost to target market, allowing for little increments of units of advertising.  Such disintegrations make it favorable for new advertisers to make of use a medium because of the improved flexibility with regard to cost and target market (Albert 2011).

The increment in advertising on payments made to TV programming in nations around the globe illustrates this effect. The TV pay programming usually entails a wide range of lowly targeted advertising channels, none of which can be able to create the audience amounts incumbent free to air adverts have historically maintained. So, while some great advertisers are making advertisements on TV pay programming to cut down on their spending or improve their targeting, mid-sized and small advertisers who may otherwise have been priced out of the advertising channel find themselves with an access that is nationwide and points that are low priced.

Methodology

Statistical Analysis

The very efficient and appropriate way of making completion of a needs analysis is to carry out the process analysis at every department. The fundamental theory or principle of the analysis of the process is that there are possibilities of breaking down day to day activities into small portions of business processes series. The processes of business have got distinct point of beginning and this brings about a definite result that is based on the conclusions that are come up with in the event of carrying out the process. The analysis of the process is especially necessary when making preparation for the implementation since documents form a very vital component of a lot of business processes (Roland 2011).

Steps involved in crisis assessment in advertising

An appropriate and well done process analysis consists of the following steps; one is the mapping of the day to day activities into processes of advertising. This involves the examination of the marketing and advertising activities that are done in a given department regularly and also to make determination of how each and every one of them starts and the kind of decisions that have to make before an outcome is reached. The second step is the processes of the document as well as the diagram. It is much easier to read, follow and understand a diagram of a process when it is done in a way that assumes the format of a flow chart. Naturally, the use of flowcharts is the most appropriate way of making representation of a process diagram because they clearly indicate the point of starting, the decision that are made as well as possible results of the process. The third step is to make identification of the break downs involved in the advertising processes. The process component needs analysis becomes very necessary when breakdowns in the process are identified. This involves getting to know where things actually go wrong. Whether the process is complicated in a manner that is unnecessary and also whether the process has got dead ends that are a hindrance to the resolutions. Breakdowns must be pinpointed in the process before their improvement is actually done. The fourth step is determination of the role played the advert transaction documents during the processes. During the preparation of an implementation, there is needed to make identification of the roles of documents as well as finding out the information concerning them. This is so because of the necessity to ensure that there exist a link between the processes of the business and the documents within a department. The fifth step is to identify the relationship of the breakdowns and the documents. This is done in order to determine the manner in which the management of the document system assists in improving the services. Here it is important to make demonstration of how the system that is in use and the documents are managed and their relationship to the process breakdowns. It also important to establish the duration of time it takes for the response of request of information made. This is because there is need for manual search for the documents. It also necessary to determine whether it is difficult to speed the location of information negatively impacts the ability to provide service to the constituents or not. The sixth step is to make use of breakdowns in the identification of solution needs. Once the manner in which the process of using the documents impacts the ability to bring the business processes to completion, it is much easier to make quick determination of the requirements of the solutions. In other words, it is the desire to see management of the document system addressing every breakdown of the process that is as a result of the mode of working with documents. The best way to determine that is bringing together a list of requirements that have direct relationship with the needs of the business. The final step involves quantifying of the advantages and benefits that will result from achieving the requirements. Here it is important to determine how the implementation of a solution that that satisfies all the requirements that have already been documented impacts on the ability to avail the services. Also the manners in which the business processes will be affected by the solutions as well as the way of showing that the solution has been arrived at successfully are very vital. It is also imperative to make identification of the quantifiable advantages and benefits that are expected from the solution. If the advantages as well as the benefits are documented before the selection of the solution and implementation is carried out, it becomes much easier for those involved to know what is required to ensure that the solutions are considered successfully.

Data gathering

Procedure and Questioners

After carrying out research which involves data studies as well as data gathering among several other techniques, qualitative analysis of the research outcomes is done. The qualitative research method introduces the key components of a qualitative approach to techniques of research. This helps in understanding the methods of qualitative analysis which takes the following into consideration; qualitative research, comparison between qualitative research and quantitative research, sampling in qualitative research technique, methodologies in qualitative research and ethical guidelines in research methodologies (Billy 2011).

 

Stage one: Questions involving clear identification of objectives of research

  1. What is the role played by crisis in adverts and what are the effects?
  2. What are the problems that require to be solved?
  3. What are the plan and which methodology approaches are to be employed?

Stage two: Determination of the targeted group by the research.

  1. Approximately how many people will be required to provide information needed?
  2. What is the approximate number of people that will require the services?
  3. Is that place currently accessibly to the advertising sources?

Stage three: Determination of the mode of gathered information delivery

  1. Is it necessary to make use of documents through email or fax?
  2. Are there offices or stations available in a number of locations that require the services?
  3. Are there services that require to be performed without the need to have an office?

Stage six: Determination of an appropriate method of conversion

  1. Which task force is to perform the conversion?
  2. What is the duration of time that it takes?
  3. What are the expenses required?

Data on adverting crisis

The data is considered to be the highest online revenue format from advertising and it accounts for a total of 58% of the initial six-month 2011 collected revenues, which was a decrease compared to 63% in 2010. Search format revenues for the first six months of 2011 summed to $4.3 billion, down by 27% from $5.9 billion in 2010. Electronic and print media related advertising revenues collections summed up to $5.5 billion and 28% revenues in the initial six months of 2011, down by 26% from the $7.4 billion (56% of total) reported in 2010.

Adverts related to display includes Banner/display Ads (21% of 2011 revenues, or

$3.4 billion), print Media (6%, or $843 million), Digital adverts (9%, or $781million), and Sponsored (4%, or $563 million).

Revenues that are classified accounted for 7% of 2011 initial six-month revenues or $1.3 billion, down 3.3% from the $1.4 billion (11% of total) collected in 2010. Revenues of the lead generation amounted to 6% of revenues in the initial six months of 2011, or $785 million, up almost 32% from the $672 million (6%) collected in 2010. Internet revenues amounted 2% of first initial six-months 2011 revenues or $81 million (Dennis 2011).

(a)                                                                  (b)

Fig1.1 Pie charts illustrating the advertising format for the first six-months (a) 2010 and (b) 2011

Fig 1.2 Bar graph illustrating changes in advertising format share over the years

Approach

Quantitative and Qualitative data methods

Average Yearly Income from advertisements for advertising companies selected at random.

Method 1: Quantitative data from Quantitative method

Advertising company Sample Survey with the use of Probability Sampling – Application of a marketing survey to a sample of 250 companies, randomly picked with the use of  a two-stage method of cluster sampling (advert companies chosen during the initial stage and advertising agents within the selected organizations at the second stage).

Results: mean yearly income of $22235 USD equivalent +/- 440 USD at 97.5% confidence (95% confidence interval = $2198 to $3266). For 80% of advertising through electronic and print, media was the primary source of income.

 

Method 2: Qualitative Method from Quantitative Data

Focus research on research studies with advertisement organizations –190 marketing and advertising agent’s surveys were randomly chosen.

Results: The average income determined by the mean rom from all the advertising agents’ involved was $35645 USD equivalent. The two lowest income estimates were $1576 and $1198, both from small to smallest advertising organizations. The two highest estimates of income were $93087 and $99877, both from average to high-income advertising agents’ organizations.

Technology gives support to the fragmentation of advert inventory in the same content as indicated by normal advertising methods online, whereas anonymous user information or profiles are formed to segment viewers of the internet content. Different adverts can then be put into a similar content when looked at by varied users. Several applications may permit such techniques to be used in addressable advertising in electronic media to a larger in the future. While several advertisers will continue to make orientation of their marketing processes around content association for their commodities, parts of budgets can be given to inventory which links back to a customer behavior or other strategic goals (Cowell 2010).  These goals are related to the existence of advanced technologies, the friction of operation largely influences the rate of development even when all industry participants in an industry want change to take place. New advertising channel inventory owners and the agents of advertising must carefully look at obstacles as well as issues when advanced technologies are created oblivious to the requirements of marketers using advanced technologies on the basis of operation.

Conclusion

According to the strategies of Advertising agents, the other strategy that ensures a high level of advertising service is provided is training of advertising service representatives. This is mainly important when new service representatives have been hired. The company has developed on-going training activities that ensure everyone is updated on the present service conditions of different products and services and any new variations that have taken place. By providing the right amount of training to the representatives, they develop professional characteristics which are important in solving problems regarding advertising service, enquiries, issues and difficulties. It is also a factor of provision of motivation and inspiration services. The task of a advertising service representative requires a high level of commitment and it is necessary to motivate the representatives on regular occasions. This ensures that they develop interest in jobs in which they are involved and are able to provide better services to their customers. These have been achieved through such activities as provision of bonuses, incentives, recognition and promotion.

Reference

Albert, G. R. (2011). Crisis: Overturning Conventions and Shaking Up the Marketplace.

New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.

Billy H. P. (2011). Advertising: A Decision-Making Approach. New York, NY: Dryden Press.

Cowell I. R. (2010). Study on Advertising and Public Relations. Lubbock, Texas: Advertising Education Publications.

Dennis T. K (2011). A handbook on Qualitative Research Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Roland T. (2011). “The Death of Advertising” Journal of Advertising, 23(4): 71-77.

Steel J (2008) Truth, Lies & Advertising New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons.