Immune system of a three weeks old

Babies have a very delicate immune system, especially when they are few weeks old. They depend on their mother’s immune system that passed to them and on the antibodies that come with breast milk. When a baby shows any symptoms of sickness, physicians take an aggressive approach since toddlers cannot explain or express where exactly they are suffering from. This paper discusses the immune system of 3 weeks old baby and aggressive measures that a physician considers in a case of a high fever.

Immune system of a three weeks old

A newborn’s immune system is not as efficient as adults or that of a bigger baby. It takes months for a babies immune system to mature. However, this does not mean that a newborn is not protected against any new diseases. These newborns bodies carry around their mother’s antibodies. These antibodies stay in the baby’s body for several months and can protect the baby from many illnesses during that period they are not able to make their antibodies. This kind of immunity is called passive immunity.                                                                                Breastfeeding three weeks babies have a better immune system than those babies that are not breastfed. Breast milk has a high nutrition and a large number of antibodies and infection-fighting cells that provide immunity to the baby(Goldman, 2007). Colostrum has a high level of immune protection. It contains antibodies to Immunoglobulin A, Immunoglobulin M, Immunoglobulin D and immunoglobulin E .Mothers are advised to breastfeed their babies to boost immunity of their babies. (Praveen, Jordan, Priami&Morine, 2015)

Blood culture test

This test is taken to detect bacteria or fungi that could be in the blood(Bderat&Saidat, 2011). When a  baby has a high fever, the doctor may suspect that there are germs that have spread in the babies blood. The presence of bacteria in the blood means that it is a severe infection. This disease can make a baby have a high fever and a rapid heart rate. The test is important as it will detect the type of bacteria that could be in the blood hence determining a child’s treatment.

Complete blood countWhen a child has a high fever, the physician can suspect that the child has low levels of white blood cells, red blood cells and platelets. Hence, the physician recommends that the infant can get a complete blood count. This test evaluates the composition and concentration of cellular components of blood. It gives information about the blood and the bone mallow.

Urinalysis test

Babies usually have no physical symptoms in case of a urinary tract infection; there is no change in colour or change in the smell of their urine. The most obvious sign of a urinary infection in toddlers is a high fever; when a child experiences high fever for, there is a high chance that the baby may have a urinary track infection five or more days.  When  bacteria get into the baby’s  bladder, it suffers from Urinary tract infection

Lumber puncture

The physician did a lumbar puncture test to evaluate if the baby had sepsis. This test was necessary to rule out chances of meningitis. High fever is one of the symptoms baby show if they are suffering from any bacterial infections or viruses. The test is used to identify diseases in the central nervous system, the pressure in the cerebrospinal fluid and the levels of chemicals in the fluid.

 

Reference

Bderat, J., &Saidat, S. (2011). Positive Blood Culture and Antibiotic Susceptibility in Young Infants , Admitted to Prince Hashim Hospital , Suspecting Sepsis. Middle East Journal Of Internal Medicine, 4(4), 12-15. http://dx.doi.org/10.5742/mejim.2011.44115

Goldman, A. (2007). The Immune System in Human Milk and the Developing Infant.Breastfeeding Medicine, 2(4), 195-204. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/bfm.2007.0024

Praveen, P., Jordan, F., Priami, C., &Morine, M. (2015). The role of breast-feeding in infant immune system: a systems perspective on the intestinal microbiome. Microbiome, 3(1).http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-015-0104-7

Swischuk, L. (2005). Fever in an Infant. Pediatric Emergency Care, 21(2), 139-141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/01.pec.0000159059.03048.5e

Wong, D., Hockenberry, M., & Wilson, D. (2011).Wong’s nursing care of infants and children. St. Louis, Mo.: Mosby/Elsevier.