Nutrition

Energy metabolism

The capacity for doing work is energy metabolism. The sum total of processes that handle energy in the body is energy metabolism. The value of energy in foods is expressed in calorie form.

Physiological system and its relevance to health

Physiological system comprises of components such as cardio respiratory capacity, muscular capacity, flexibility, and body composition.

Cardio respiratory capacity is the body’s ability to absorb oxygen (respiration) from the atmosphere, take it to cells (circulation), and use it in cells to form energy (Biogenetics) for use in physical activities (Canfitpro 2016). Cardio respiratory capacity is also referred as aerobic capacity since it includes the time taken to respire, the strength used and speed of respiration. Examples include decreased rate of contracting cardiovascular diseases, decreased rate of heart rest, increased volumes of strokes and output in cardiac activities.

Muscular capacity: it is the endurance of muscles to use force over long times and perform contractions in muscles that are complete and repeated. Moreover, it is the strength of muscles to generate force to use in contractions. It is also the muscular power to produce strength explosively (Canfitpro 2016). Proper capacity of muscles is adapted to increased strength, muscular endurance, basal metabolic rate, posture and strength of joints.

Flexibility: movements performed by joints and flexibilities. Joints are adapted to flexibility that assists in reducing injuries, increase of improved movements of the body and posture (Chen 2007). Body composition involves of mass that does not have fat such as blood, organs, fluids, bone, and muscle, in proportion to fat mass, which is the adipose tissue under skin and around certain organs. Adaptations include improved rate of basal metabolic, body function and low risk to cardiovascular diseases.

Secondary components of the body that add to improved body fitness include

Balance which maintains the position of the body in a dynamic and station position.

Coordination enables the body to make use of all parts of the body to give smooth motion (Chen 2007).

Agility involves quick change of direction

Reaction time is the time spent to respond to specific stimulus

Speed involves quick movements

Power is produced by speed and strength.

Mental ability enables concentration when doing exercises and the enjoyment of benefits of exercise in relaxed modes.

Health and wellness

Health is a process that changes over time; there are times of good health and of sickness. Health is a sum three processes, social health, mental health, emotional health, and spiritual health. Social health enables people to peacefully interact with others and satisfy their relationships. Mental health enables people to learn and grow mentally (Canfitpro, 2016). Emotional health enables people to control their emotions and express them in a comfortable way. Spiritual health has faith concepts and unifying principles.

Wellness searches for improved life quality, personal growth, attitudes, and lifestyle behaviors. Other factors such as good nutrition, physical activities, methods of coping with stress, success in careers and physical activities.

Consequences of erectile dysfunction

Erectile dysfunction is also referred as impotence. It affects men and their intimate relationships. Dysfunction consequences include mental troubles to a man and a woman, stress and depression. It leads to breaking of relationships and blame as both partners blame each other (Sogen 2016). Moreover it brings disbelieve to a woman who may think that she is not attractive to her man despite assurance from her man that it is not so. Loss of self-esteem for both partners is a common situation in affected relationships.

Families with problems of dysfunctionality experience great alcoholism, problems of mental illnesses, child abuse, and extreme rigidity of parents. Children raised up in such conditions have difficulties in forming lasting relationships, maintaining their positive self-esteem, controlling themselves, and trusting other people.

Dysfunctional families

Dysfunction in a family interferes with its healthy functioning. Proper functioning of a family is affected by death of a spouse, illnesses among others. Although healthy families get back to their normal functioning after passing of the crisis, most dysfunctional families are greatly affected by such effects since the problems seem to be chronic (Sogen 2016). Their children are not fully attended. Parents in dysfunctional families’ under-function leaving their children to look for food while others over-function not allowing children to mature and leave their lives. Dysfunctional families leave children to perform adult responsibilities at younger age. Parents ask to be taken care by their children while ignoring the needs of their children. Children remain feeling guilty and insufficient which continues to adulthood.

Controlling parents in dysfunctional families do not allow their children to take appropriate responsibilities at right ages. They always fear for their children thus make decisions on their behalf. Lastly, they get betrayed and are abandoned after their children are independent. They experience difficult times when assuming roles of adulthood.

Most of these families have alcoholic parents who are chaotic. Their behaviors are unpredictable. Children are forbidden to emotionally express themselves and instead are expected to remain with their problems. They fail to seek help due to fear of assaults from their parents. As a result, children are left insecure, angry, and frustrated.

Dysfunctional families have abusive parents and pass through as sexual abuse, verbal and physical. They beat their children unnecessarily. They criticize their children on their looks, capabilities, and values. Such parents leave their children with fractures on their skulls, burns, cuts, bruises among other physical injuries. Their families are filled with feelings of terror, violence, anger, and mistrust. Sexual dysfunction in such families is common which may involve a parent kissing, hugging and stroking a child in secrecy for own beneficial purposes.

Introducing relevant testing (conventional medical and functional tests, their uses, validity, and reliability.)

Relevant testing

            Relevant evaluation is a measure of the reliability of the top ranked results. Reliability is extent of consistency over time. Reliability is the accurate representation of the whole population for study (Golafshani, 2003). Reliable instrument reproduces results using similar methodology. Reliability is categorized according to degree in which repeated measurements remains similar, stability of measurements and similarity of given measurement over given time. Stable measures ensure that test-retest method produces similar results.

Validity examines whether the research conducted has measured what it was meant to measure (Golafshani, 2003). Reliability measures  replicability of results and validity measures accurateness and whether measurements used are meeting the goal of the research.

Functional tests

Function tests assists people to assess people’s ability to perform many tasks. Reliability of instruments used to measure functional capacity is judged according to their intra-rater reliability, test-retest reliability and inter-rater reliability. Valid FCE instruments measure what they are intended and are plausible (Lambert 2015). Content validity explains that the test is related to the construct it is measuring. Concurrent validity explains that the test correlates to an established gold standard. Functional capacity evaluation is used in developing treatment program, measure patient’s physical abilities after and before a rehabilitation program to modify treatments. They are used in evaluating extent of injuries in injured workers and assessing whether they can get back to work.

Reliability and validity of functional capacity evaluations

Temporal stability is a form of reliability evaluation that performs similar tests to same respondents in different occasions. This test is not reliable because results are affected by change of behaviors due to repetitive measurements. A carry over effect is possible to some examinees that may have higher scores in second tests. A test-retest approach is recommended for this formula.

Form equivalence involves conducting different test on similar content. The method is best since alternate tests are validated by equating the tests. It avoids cheating among examinees.

Internal consistency reliable estimate makes use of coefficient test scores obtained from surveys.

Inter-rater reliability measures agreement between two raters and useful when the subject being judged is subjective. Continuous scales are measured using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Ordinal scales use spearman’s coefficient (Chong  2015). Categorical classification uses Cohen’s Kappa coefficient.

Reliability is important but it is not sufficient for validity. Example a scale needle that is five pounds further from zero reports are over-reported with five pounds (Chong 2015). The measurement is consistent but not valid unless on occasions when it is always like that. Reliability lacks when tasks have a large variation because there are errors of measurement when assessing measurement.

Conventional views on validity

Face validity

Face validity implies that validity is taken at face values. Experts and teachers who give their suggestions on areas for modification (Heffner 2014) verify validity of items. However, this method is abandoned because it is vague and subjective. In addition, most of knowledge from professors is common sense.

Content validity

In this context, inference is drawn from test scores obtained from larger items like ones on the test. In other words, it is determined by samples that represent the whole population. Experts of that content determine validity of the content (Heffner 2014). Although it is, an appropriate method to use experts may limit their knowledge and making other readers of their texts difficult to understand it.

 

 

Criterion validity

Inferences are drawn from test scores to performance. High-test scores in valid tests indicate that examinees have passed performance criteria. Regression analysis establishes validity of the criterion with independent variables used as predictor variables and dependent variable used as criterion variable. Correlation coefficient found in between them is named validity coefficient (Rijiken, Engelen, Weerdesteyn, & Geurts 2015). Criterion validity is more concerned with prediction other than explanation. In this case, prediction depends on mathematics and explanation depends on logical dependence.

Concurrent validity is the ability of a device to directly vary with measures of similar construct or indirectly measures of opposite construct. Tests are valid if  comparison with already valid tests proves positive.

Content validity is the ability of a test to show all contents of particular constructs.

Predictive validity tests have the ability to screen for future behavior.

References

Heffner, C. (2014). Chapter 7.3 test validity and reliability. Psych central’s virtual psychology      classroom. Retrieved from http://allpsych.com/researchmethods/validityreliability.

Chong Ho Yu. (2015) reliability and validity. Retrieved from http://www.creative-         wisdom.com/teaching/assessment/reliability.html

Rijiken, N., Engelen, B., Weerdesteyn, V., & Geurts, A. (2015). Clinical functional capacity         testing in patients with facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy: construct validity and          interrater reliability of antigravity tests. Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation                        home, 12 (96), 2201-2206.

Kimberlin, C., & Winterstein, A. (2008). Validity and reliability of measurement instruments used in research. Research fundamentals, 1 (65), 1-9.

Chen, J. (2007).Functional capacity evaluation and disability. LOWA Orthopaedic            journal, 1(27), 121-127.

U.S. Legal. (2016). Relevant test law & legal definition. Retrieved from     http://definitions.uslegal.com/r/relevant-test/

Golafshani, N. (2003). Understanding reliability and validity in qualitative research. The   qualitative report, 4(8), 1-10.

Lambert, D. J. (2015). Dysfunctional families: recognizing and overcoming their effects.   Counseling services. Retrieved from http://www.k-         state.edu/counseling/topics/relationships/dysfunc.html

Sogen, C. (2016). Impotence imposes on relationships. Double dysfunction. Retrieved from          http://www.webmd.com/erectile-dysfunction/features/impotence-imposes-on-relationships

Canfitpro. (2016). The importance of health, fitness and wellness. Excerpts. Retrieved from          http://www.humankinetics.com/excerpts/excerpts/the-importance-of-health-fitness-and-       wellness