Synopsis of Research in Nursing

Abstract

Diabetes is a body condition in which it does not regulate blood glucose leading to large amounts of urine extracted from the kidneys. The body fails to make enough insulin and never uses it appropriately. Diabetes can be type I or type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is emerging as an upcoming problem in health practice. Recent researches done indicate an increase in type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents in all parts of the world among all ethnic groups. Various screens and cohort studies have been carried out among adolescents and children from African-American, Asian/Pacific Islanders among others. High-risk groups include children and adolescents diagnosed with obesity. Moreover, diabetes has been associated with social anxiety, fear of hypoglycemia. Surveys incorporating questionnaires were issued out among adolescents and children. The relationship has been compared with their AIC hemoglobin results.

The results were obtained from studies conducted in Melbourne University, department of psychology in Australia and America.

 

Battisha, A., Hart, T., Greco, L. & Gloizer.(2014).Type 1 Diabetes among Adolescents reduced diabetes self-care caused by social fear and fear of Hypoglycemia. The diabetes educator, 3 (35), 465-475.Retrieved from http://tde.sagepub.com/content/35/3/465.short

Diabetes care is very costly and increasing. The present condition has changed with children and adolescents being diagnosed with diabetes. The main reason being obesity and overweight between the two groups. Moreover, type 2 diabetes prevalence has increased three times among children and adolescents. Type 2 diabetes has accelerated development of cardiovascular diseases, loss of vision and amputation of limbs. There has been increase in morbidity and mortality rates among adolescents and children.

Battisha, Hart, Greco, & Gloizer (2009) conducted a quantitative study on diabetes among adolescents. Hypothesis included social anxiety is negatively associated with adherence and the quality of life. Hypoglycemia fear acts as a mediator of the relationship and lastly that social anxiety of girls is higher than boys.

Methodology used included a survey having questionnaires about social anxiety, adherence of behavior and the last A1C results of hemoglobin. The survey was carried out among 76 adolescents whereby 33 were boys and 43 were girls. Their mean age was 15.9(1.44) years.

The results indicated that the levels of social anxiety were not different between genders. Social anxiety among boys is related to insulin injection and worse diet. Girls found no associations. In both genders, there were positive correlations with poor life quality. Hypoglycemia fear intervene insulin relationship and social anxiety among boys.

Findings suggested that social anxiety is a common situation in both adolescent populations. Social anxiety has the possibility to interfere with behavioral adherence and life quality among type 1 diabetes adolescents. Increased life quality and adherence is brought by treatment and screening. The setting of the research was in Melbourne University, department of psychology in Australia.

Reinehr, T. (2013). Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. World Journal of diabetes, 4 (6), 270-281.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3874486/

Quantitative research done among children and adolescents with type 2 diabetes. Hypotheses were obesity is the main cause of diabetes. Secondly, most children diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus are obese. Lastly, diagnosis among children takes place between 10 years and 2 years before onset of puberty. Most children with diabetes mellitus present with other conditions like polydipsia, mild polyuria, glucosuria with absence of ketonuria.

Most young people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were African-American, Indian Americans, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islandres. Type 2 diabetes prevalence recorded among children and adolescents was 12:1 and rare in Europe with 2.5: 1. The rate was highest among Pima Indians with 22.3/1000 in children ranging from 10-14 years. Findings indicate that most children were diagnosed with obesity. Among adolescents screenings done reported 0.4% to 1% among type 2 diabetes mellitus in obese children who were greater than or equal to 12 years.

However cohort studies done between type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes indicated that incidences of type 2 diabetes were low than type 1 diabetes.

More findings indicate that type 2 diabetes is very mild. Children having the condition present with weight loss, polyuria, and polydipsia. 33% of the group has ketonuria during diagnosis while 5% to 25% have ketoacidosis at presentation time.

Diabetes screening occurred in United States.

 

References

Battisha, A., Hart, T., Greco, L. & Gloizer.(2014).Type 1 Diabetes among Adolescents reduced diabetes self-care caused by social fear and fear of Hypoglycemia. The diabetes educator, 3 (35), 465-475.Retrieved from http://tde.sagepub.com/content/35/3/465.short

Reinehr,  T. (2013). Type 2 diabetes mellitus in children and adolescents. World Journal of diabetes, 4 (6), 270-281.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3874486/